CO2 Total Extract
Botanical name: Hypericum perforatum
Common name: St. John's Wort
Geographical position: 700m above sea level
Part of the plant used: Twig and flower (wild)
Appearance: Dark Brown solid.
Major compounds: alpha- pinene, hypericin, hyperforin
Odor: Natural and fresh fragrance
Hypericum perforatum has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for the treatment of several disorders, such as minor burns, anxiety and mild to moderate depression.
It has been demonstrated that H. perforatum extracts and several of its major molecular components have the ability to protect against toxic insults: directly, through neuroprotective mechanisms and indirectly, through is antioxidant properties. H. perforatum has therefore the potential to become an effective neuroprotective therapeutic agent. The effectiveness of H. perfpratum as an antidepression agent is particularly well studied, and the underlying mechanisms are well understood. [1, 2, 3,]
Hypericin is the main antidepressant constituent of H. perforatum, stimulating capillary blood flow.  Hypericin potential for antitumoral photodynamic therapy has been explored in several studies as it is probably the most powerful photosensitizer found in nature and for its specific properties, such as a strong absorption at longer wavelength, minimal dark toxicity, certain tumor selectivity and much higher clearance rate from the host body than hematoporphyrins. 
Hypericin has been shown to have a strong affinity for sigma receptors, which regulate dopamine levels. It also acts as a receptor antagonist at adenosine, benzodiazepine, GABA-A, GABA-B, and inositol triphosphate receptors, which regulate action potentials caused by neurotransmitters. 
Hyperforin inhibits serotonin uptake by elevating intracellular concentrations of sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca). 
 Medicinal Plants: Culture, Utilization and Phytopharmacology By Thomas S. C. Li
 WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants.- Vol.2.
 Ana I. Oliveira, Cláudia Pinho, Bruno Sarmento and Alberto C. P. Dias: Neuroprotective Activity of Hypericum perforatum and Its Major Components. Front. Plant Sci., 11 July 2016
 Klemow KM, Bartlow A, Crawford J, et al. Medical Attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) In: Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2011. Chapter 11.
 Gerald G. Briggs, Roger K. Freeman, Sumner J. Yaffe: Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation, Ninth Edition. Page 1354
 Andreas Koeberle, Antonietta Rossi, Julia Bauer, Friederike Dehm, Luisella Verotta, Hinnak Northoff, Lidia Sautebin and Oliver Werz: Hyperforin, an anti-inflammatory constituent from St. John’s wort, inhibits microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 and suppresses prostaglandin E2 formation in vivo. Front. Pharmacol., 18 February 2011
 Quiney, C., Billard, C., Salanoubat, C. et al. Hyperforin, a new lead compound against the progression of cancer and leukemia?. Leukemia 20, 1519–1525 (2006).
 Bouron A, Lorrain E. Effets cellulaires et moléculaires de l'hyperforine, un antidépresseur végétal : revue de la littérature [Cellular and molecular effects of the antidepressant hyperforin on brain cells: Review of the literature]. Encephale. 2014 Apr;40(2):108-13. French. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2013.03.004. Epub 2013 Jun 29. PMID: 23816060.
 Zanoli P. Role of hyperforin in the pharmacological activities of St. John's Wort. CNS Drug Rev. 2004 Fall;10(3):203-18. doi: 10.1111/j.1527-3458.2004.tb00022.x. PMID: 15492771; PMCID: PMC6741737.
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