CO2 Total Extract
Botanical name: Crataegus monogyna
Common name: Hawthorn
Geographical position: 1100m above sea level
Part of the plant used: Fruit (wild)
Appearance: Dark Brown solid.
Major compounds: Hexanol, hexenol, butyraldehyde,
Odor: Natural and fresh fragrance
Hawthorn berries are rich in many bioactive compounds that vary according to the ripeness of the fruit. Over-ripened fruits are rich in carbohydrates, sugars and Saturated Fatty Acids. Unripe fruits exhibit a higher concentration of antioxidants, phenolics included. Also, unripe fruit extract is richer in Polyunsaturated fatty acids while preserving an optimal Unsaturated to Saturated ratio. These analyses of Hawthorn berries’ bioactive components make it applicable in the Nutraceutical Industry.  Natural nutrients found in Hawthorn extract are also of interest in the emerging science of Nanonutraceuticals. 
Hawthorn fruit antioxidant activity being proportionate to polyphenolic concentration makes it a natural source of antioxidants and a contributor to cardiovascular diseases treatment. 
Hawthorn fruit also show anxiolytic effects as well as the time spent in closed arms in EPM reduced. 
Hawthorn fruit extract acted as a protective agent in vivo in male mice against reproductive toxicity caused by Doxorubicin. This way, cytoprotective properties of Hawthorn fruit extract reduce adverse and toxic effects of Doxorubicin as a powerful and controversial anti-malignant medication. Hawthorn fruit extract proves to be a natural male fertility remedy as observed when acting against a chemotherapeutic medication by partially preserving sperm count, levels of testosterone and spermatogenic activities. 
 Barros, Lillian & Carvalho, Ana & Ferreira, Isabel. (2011). Comparing the Composition and Bioactivity of Crataegus Monogyna Flowers and Fruits used in Folk Medicine. Phytochemical analysis : PCA. 22. 181-8. 10.1002/pca.1267.
 Nazhand, Amirhossein & Lucarini, Massimo & Durazzo, Alessandra & Zaccardelli, Massimo & Cristarella, Santo & Souto, Selma & Silva, Amélia & Severino, Patrícia & Souto, Eliana B. & Santini, Antonello. (2020). Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.): An Updated Overview on Its Beneficial Properties. Forests. 11. 564. 10.3390/f11050564.
 Bahri, Hakima & Benkirane, Chaymae & Tazi, B.. (2019). Antioxidant activity of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) from Morocco. 10.15413/ajmp.2019.0100.
 Popovic-Milenkovic, Marija & Tomovic, Marina & Brankovic, Snezana & Ljujic, Biljana & Jankovic, Slobodan. (2014). Antioxidant and anxiolytic activities of Crataegus nigra Wald. et Kit. berries. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research. 71. 279-285.
 Shalizar-Jalali, Ali & Hasanzadeh, Shapour. (2013). Crataegus monogyna fruit aqueous extract as a protective agent against doxorubicin-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine. 3. 159-170.
* Please, note that the above statements are summaries of published studies and and investigations as cited at the end of each statement.
These are not results or conclusions drawn for Esencial® Laboratory.
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